Paper Money of Chihuahua

.. by Simon Prendergast

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Home The History The Ejército Constitucionalista notes Counterfeit $5 Ejército Constitucionalista notes Types 5-7

Counterfeit $5 Ejército Constitucionalista notes Types 5-7

Counterfeit $5 Ejército Constitucionalista Type 5

The C/Y difference was first recorded in a Carrancista notice of 19 January 1915 (repeated in a notice of February 1915), though officials later said that it was the result of different printings rather than counterfeiting.

background to ‘EJÉRCITO CONSTITUCIONALISTA DE MÉXICO’ is made up of very fine horizontal and frequently diagonal lines forming the pattern known as matting (petatillo) the background is made up of rough vertical lines

the ‘I T’ of ‘EJÉRCITO’  are separate

the letters are closely joined

the ‘C’ of  ‘CONSTITUCIONALISTA’ is separate from the ‘O’ of ‘EJÉRCITO’ and the impression is finer

letter ‘C’ is much nearer the ‘O’ and the impression is cruder

the inside of the letter ‘E’ of ‘EJÉRCITO’ forms a Y

the inside forms an inverted C
the letters are a different size (one needs a pair of compasses to measure them)
The snow is clearly reflected in the water The snow is reflected only as a indistinct white shadow
Eagle’s feathers are well drawn (finas y bien acabadas) feathers are crudely drawn with a whitish background
As a general rule the ‘No’s are printed over or very close to the black borders the ‘No’s are further from the edges

In Aguirre’s signature there is a point in the centre of the circle of the tail of the G

no point in the tail of the G

Similar characteristics were listed in a notice of September 1915.

Background is of horizontal lines printed with the greatest perfection Background is white (fondo blanco)
The paper is extremely run of the mill (corriente) and the impression of ‘que la Tesoreria recibirá y pagará’ etc. is rough and ready, the whole of the printing being generally coarser

the inside of the letter ‘E’ of ‘EJÉRCITO’ forms a Y

the inside forms an inverted C
The snow and mountains are clearly reflected

The detail of the snow on the mountains is unfinished and the mountains are not reflected in the water with any clarity

Known examples have the following control letters: IV-A(inverted) O-IV, VII-A O-VII, VIII-A O-VIII, XII-A O-XII, II-A(inverted) II-O, A-III(inverted) III-O, A-IX IX-O, A-X X-O, A-IX IX-O, and A-X X-O which generally have the correct corresponding serial number but there are a couple of anomalies:

expected actual shift
[      ] I-0
II-A(inverted) II-O +1
[      ] IV-O
A-III(inverted) III-O -1

C/Y notes are also known with a dot in Aguirre's signatures. Since these have higher serial numbers/control letters they can be seen as a correction of the original counterfeit Type 5 and are listed as possible counterfeit Type 9.

Counterfeit $5 Ejército Constitucionalista Type 6

A notice of February 1915, reiterated in Nuevo León in June 1915, lists  the following characteristics.

background colour is strong background colour is ordinary
the centre vignette has perfect chiaroscuro less chiaroscuro, mountains appear to have more snow, reflection of snow on water is coarser
(La viñeta es subida en su color negro; los números cinco no son claros. tienen unos adornos interiores en color negro) these details are weak

‘que la Tesorería ... pagará de acuerdo’

'que la Tesorería ... pagará de acuerdi’

Secretaría seal is perfectly legible Secretaría seal is illegible
serial numbers are an intense red numbers are a less intense red

This counterfeit was reported in September 1914 to have flooded Brownsville, Matamoros and many northeastern Mexico towns. It was stated that the fake note was easily distinguishable from the good, being badly printed from an imperfect plate. Thousands had 'acuerdo' misspelled, but newer issues showed this error to have been correctedSan Antonio Express, 6 September 1914 and 14 September 1914.

Known examples have the control letters A-XL XL-O and A-XLIV XLIV-O but with incorrect serial numbers.

expected actual shift

Counterfeit $5 Ejército Constitucionalista Type 6a

As the newspaper reported that the misspelling 'acuerdi' was correctedSan Antonio Express, 6 September 1914 and 14 September 1914 we can perhaps expect a variant.

Counterfeit $5 Ejército Constitucionalista Type 7

Another notice from early 1915 listed another type of forgery.

made from photogravure, so impression of all the letters, particularly on the face, is extremely crude (sumamente burda)
the background to 'EJÉRCITO CONSTITUCIONALISTA DE MÉXICO' is a fine hatching background is a             (una pasta porosa)
the snow on the volcanoes and the reflection cast on the water form a rough pattern of white spots (forma un conjunto tosco de tono blanquisco á manchas)
the eagle has clear, dark details the eagle, and the feathers of its wings, are not so detailed
On the reverse, the seal of the Secretaría de Hacienda is blurred (borroso) and illegible