Paper Money of Chihuahua

.. by Simon Prendergast

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Home The History The Ejército Constitucionalista notes Counterfeit $10 Ejército Constitucionalista notes

Counterfeit $10 Ejército Constitucionalista notes

There are fewer references to counterfeit $10 notes but it is possible to identify a few types.

Counterfeit $10 Ejército Constitucionalista Type 1

Counterfeit $10 notes without Villarreal’s initials apparently appeared in Chihuahua in January 1915La Convención, 6 January 1915.


monogram 'FFV' to left of 'PESOS' and right of Villarreal's signature

monogram ‘FFV’  are missing

To this can be added:

different pattern of wavy lines in underprint

Shading of vertical lines under the right wing

Secretaría seal reads 'EC MEXICO' without 'DE' or accent on 'E'

These are known with control letters I-C C-I.

There are also counterfeit notes with these features but with the monogram included: see Type 4 below.

Counterfeit $10 Ejército Constitucionalista Type 2

A late notice of September 1915 lists these characteristics of a counterfeit $10 note.

the wavy line is less distinct in the top corners
the stars over the word ‘DIEZ’ are very badly printed
on the reverse, the word ‘LIBERTAD’ on the Phrygian cap is indistinct and the printing smudged

Counterfeit $10 Ejército Constitucionalista Type 3

On 31 January 1916 the Presidente Municipal of San Luis Potosí reported a counterfeit $10 Ejército Constitucionalista C 265366 C-VI VI-CASLP, Ayuntamiento 1916.11 exp. 18 letter Presidente Municipal, San Luis Potosí to Juan Barragán, Jefe de Hacienda, 31 January 1916; confirmation that indeed false, 31 January 1916. The details were:

poor thick printing
stars over DIEZ indistinct

so this could be the same as Type 3.

Counterfeit $10 Ejército Constitucionalista Type 4

In Coahuila Urbano Treviño reported finding eleven counterfeit $10 notes (numbers 33606, 33640, 34289, 41452, 66754, 67411, 70382, 133849, 172795, 182690 and 182693). Instructions from the Jefatura de HaciendaACOAH, Fondo Siglo XX, 1914, caja 8, folleto 4, exp. 13 in Coahuila listed the following characteristics:

Shading of vertical lines under the right wing (sombras a rayas verticales debajo del ala derecha)

Smooth signature (firma lisa)

No accent on ‘MEXICO’ in the Secretaría seal

These are known in a variety of inks and with the following control letters: C-I I-C and II-C C-II. They are known with genuine validations and with counterfeit Nogales resellos.

Counterfeit $10 Ejército Constitucionalista Type 4a

A variant has the above features of Type 4 but the contour of the left-hand mountain is flatter. The example has control letters II-C C II.

Counterfeit $10 Ejército Constitucionalista Type 5

This type also has the flatter left-hand mountain and the defective seal but the eagle's wing is correct.


Counterfeit $10 Ejército Constitucionalista Type 6

This has a poorly executed 'promise to pay'.


On 7 June 1915 it was reported that a widespread falsification had been discovered in Veracruz. Apparently León Rast (sic, also Raast), a Russian from Puebla, well known as a swindler and attempted arms dealerIn late 1913 Raast was supposedly sent to Europe to acquire arms and ammunition for the federal government (Periódico Oficial de Puebla, Tomo XCIV, Núm. 17, 27 February 1914), was apprehended with 36,000 $10 Ejército Consitucionalista notes. It seems he had produced two million in Galveston, Texas, but was discovered by the Mexican and American authorities before he could achieve muchEl Radical, 7 June 1915. In May 1915 the Russian vice consul had told the Secretaría de Gobernación that the facts were that Raast was in business with a Sr. Adolfo Hegewisch, manager of the Compañía Marítima de Veracruz. Some time previously Hegewisch had received a consignment of Rasst’s counterfeit notes, from Galveston, and used them in various transactions, including giving $36,000 to the Casa Viya Hermanos Sucrs., of Veracruz. The business refused to accept them because they were all suspiciously brand new $10 notes. Finally, they did so when the Secretaría de Fomento certified them as genuine. A little later the Secretaría de Gobernación del Estado raided the Casa Viya Hermanos and confiscated about $5,000 of these $36,000. In spite of all its efforts to retrieve the other notes which it had already put into circulation the Casa could only recover $21,000. It was likely that Rasst had moved his operations to PueblaPeriódico Oficial de Puebla, Tomo XCVI, Núm. 16, 8 June 1915.

However, Raast reappeared in September in an incident that showed counterfeit notes could have "currency" in the United States. In September 1915 the Mount Vernon Brewery in Baltimore City was purchased for $32,935.00, credited by a mortgage of $12,500.00 and cash of $1,000.00, leaving a balance of $19,435.00, which was to be paid under the contract in $299,000 (face value) Carrancista Constitutional Mexican currency, which was valued at $29,900.00 US currency. The purchasers guaranteed that the money was genuine but it turned out to be “spurious, false and counterfeit”. The case was taken to law, and finally decided by the Maryland Court of Appeals on 9 December 1919Raast v. Morris, 135 Md. 243 (1919).

On 15 June 1915 Luis Pruneda, the Inspector at the government printing works at Veracruz, reported that they knew of five types of counterfeit $10 Ejército Constitucionalista notesCONDUMEX, Fondo XX1, carpeta 43, legajo 4641.