Paper Money of Chihuahua

.. by Simon Prendergast

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Home The History The Ejército Constitucionalista notes $1 Ejército Constitucionalista notes

$1 Ejercito Constitucionalista notes

The control letter changed every 50,000 notes and was based on Benito Juárez’s maxim ‘El respeto al derecho ajeno es la paz’On 15 July 1867, with the restoration of the Republic, Juárez addressed Congress with these words: "Mexicanos: encaminemos ahora todos nuestros esfuerzos a obtener y a consolidar los beneficios de la paz. Bajo sus auspicios, será eficaz la protección de las leyes y de las autoridades para los derechos de todos los habitantes de la República. Que el pueblo y el gobierno respeten los derechos de todos. Entre los individuos, como entre las naciones, el respeto al derecho ajeno es la paz.
Confiemos en que todos los mexicanos, aleccionados por la prolongada y dolorosa experiencia de las comunidades de la guerra, cooperaremos en el bienestar y la prosperidad de la nación que sólo pueden conseguirse con un inviolable respeto a las leyes, y con la obediencia a las autoridades elegidas por el pueblo."
. The first sequence of 1,500,000 notes had this 30-letter sequence with an Arabic numeral 1: the second repeated the maxim ten times with Roman control numerals and serial numbers running from 1 to 15000000: the third serquence again repeated the maxim with Roman control numerals starting at I and serial numbers starting at 150001.

At first the control letter and numbers were printed in a san serif font (with Arabic 1 occasionally used instead of a Roman I, probably because of a lack of type) but halfway through the second sequence they were changed to a serif font.

First sequence

Code from to
E I 1 50000
L I 50001 100000
R I 100001 150000
E I 150001 200000
S I 200001 250000
P I 250001 300000
E I 300001 350000
T I 350001 400000
O I 400001 450000
A I 450001 500000
L I 500001 550000
D I 550001 600000
E I 600001 650000
R I 650001 700000
E I 700001 750000
C I 750001 800000
H I 800001 850000
O I 850001 900000
A I 900001 950000
J I 950001 1000000
E I 1000001 1050000
N I 1050001 1100000
O I 1100001 1150000
E I 1150001 1200000

The first four codes(E-I, L-I, R-I, e-I)are known vertically (E-I, L-I, R-I and E-I)as well as horizontally.

To date no notes between control letters E-I (1150001-1200000) and S-XXV (1200001- 1250000) have been recorded, which suggests that the sequence jumped from E-I  to S-XXV.

Second sequence

Code from to
Code from to
Code from to




E XXXI 1500001 1550000 E LXI 3000001 3050000
L XXXII 1550001 1600000
L LXII 3050001 3100000





R XXXIII 1600001 1650000
R LX1I1 3100001 3150000





E XXX1V 1650001 1700000
E LXIV 3150001 3200000




S XXXV 1700001 1750000
S LXV 3200001 3250000





P XXXVI 1750001 1800000
P LXVI 3250001 3300000





E XXXV11 1800001 1850000 E LXVII 3300001 3350000





T XXXVIII 1850001 1900000
T LXVIII 3350001 3400000




O XXX1X 1900001 1950000
O LXIX 3400001 3450000




A XL 1950001 2000000
A LXX 3450001 3500000



L XLI 2000001 2050000
L LXXI 3500001 3550000





D XLII 2050001 2100000
D LXXII 3550001 3600000





E XL1I1 2100001 2150000
E LXXIII 3600001 3650000





R XLIV 2150001


R LXXIV 3650001 3700000




E XLV
2200000

E LXXV 3700001 3750000





C XLVI 2200001 2250000
C LXXVI 3750001 3800000





H XLVII 2250001 2300000
H LXXVII 3800001 3850000





O XLVIII 2300001 2350000
O LXXVIII 3850001 3900000





A XL1X 2350001


A LXXIX 3900001 3950000




J L


J LXXX 3950001 4000000





E LI


E LXXXI 4000001 4050000





N LII
2600000

N LXXXII 4050001 4100000





O LIII 2600001 2650000
O LXXXIII 4100001 4150000





E L1V 2650001 2700000
E LXXXIV 4150001 4200000
S XXV 1200001 1250000
S LV 2700001 2750000
S LXXXV 4200001 4250000
L XXVI 1250001 1300000
L LVI 2750001 2800000
L LXXXVI 4250001 4300000
A XXV1I 1300001 1350000
A LVII 2800001 2850000
A LXXXVII 4300001 4350000
P XXV111 1350001 1400000
P LV111 2850001 2900000
P LXXXVIII 4350001 4400000
A XX1X 1400001 1450000
A LIX 2900001 2950000
A LXXXIX 4400001 4450000
S XXX 1450001 1500000
S LX 2950001 3000000
Z XC 4450001 4500000

 

Code from to
Code from to
Code from to
E XCI 4500001 4550000 E CXXI 6000001 6050000 E CLI 7500001 7550000
L XC1I 4550001 4600000 L CXXII 6050001 6100000 L CLII 7550001 7600000
R XCIII 4600001 4650000 R CXXIII 6100001 6150000 R CLIII 7600001 7650000
E XCIV 4650001 4700000 E CXXIV 6150001 6200000 E CLIV 7650001 7700000
S XCV 4700001 4750000 S CXXV 6200001 6250000 S CLV 7700001 7750000
P XCVI 4750001 4800000 P CXXVI 6250001 6300000 P CLVI 7750001 7800000
E XCVII 4800001 4850000 E CXXVII 6300001 6350000 E CLVII 7800001 7850000
T XCVIII 4850001 4900000 T CXXVIII 6350001 6400000 T VIII 7850001 7900000
O XCIX 4900001 4950000 O CXXIX 6400001 6450000 O CLIX 7900001 7950000
A C 4950001 5000000 A CXXX 6450001 6500000 A CLX 7950001 8000000
L CI 5000001 5050000 L CXXXI 6500001 6550000 L CLXI 8000001 8050000
D CII 5050001 5100000 D CXXXII 6550001 6600000 D CLXII 8050001 8100000
E C111 5100001 5150000 E CXXXIII 6600001 6650000 E CLXIII 8100001 8150000
R CIV 5150001 5200000 R CXXXIV 6650001 6700000 R CLXIV 8150001 8200000
E CV 5200001 5250000 E CXXXV 6700001 6750000 E CLXV 8200001 8250000
C CVI 5210001 5300000 C CXXXV11 6750001 6800000 C CLXVI 8250001 8300000
H CVII 5300001 5350000 H CXXXVII 6800001 6850000 H CLXVII 8300001 8350000
O CVIII 5350001 5400000 O CXXXVIII 6850001 6900000 O CLXVIII 8350001 8400000
A CIX 5400001 5450000 A CXXXIX 6900001 6950000 A CLXIX 8400001 8450000
J CX 5450001 5500000 J CXL 6950001 7000000 J CLXX 8450001 8500000
E CXI 5500001 5550000 E CXLI 7000001 7050000 E CLXXI 8500001 8550000
N CXII 5550001 5600000 N CXLII 7050001 7100000 N CLXXII 8550001 8600000
O CXIII 5600001 5650000 O CXLIII 7100001 7150000 O CLXXIII 8600001 8650000
E CXIV 5650001 5700000 E CXLIV 7150001 7200000 E CLXXIV 8650001 8700000
S CXV 5700001 5750000 S CXLV 7200001 7250000 S CLXXV 8700001 8750000
L CXVI 5750001 5800000 L CXLVI 7250001 7300000 L CLXXVI 8750001 8800000
A CXVII 5800001 5850000 A CXLVII 7300001 7350000 A CLXXV11 8800001 8850000
P CXVIII 5850001 5900000 P CXLVIII 7350001 7400000 P CLXXV111 8850001 8900000
A CXIX 5900001 5950000 A CXLIX 7400001 7450000 A CLXX1X 8900001 8950000
Z CXX 5950001 6000000 Z CL 7450001 7500000 Z CLXXX 8950001 9000000

 

Code from to
Code from to
Code from to
E CLXXXI 9000001 9050000 E CCXI 10500001 10550000 E CCXLI 12000001 12050000
L CLXXXII 9050001 9100000 L CCXII 10550001 10600000 L CCXLII 12050001 12100000
R CLXXXIII 9100001 9150000 R CCXIII 10600001 10650000 R CCXLIII 12100001 12150000
E CLXXX1V 9150001 9200000 E CCXIV 10650001 10700000 E CCXLIV 12150001 12200000
S CLXXXV 9200001 9250000
S CCXV 10700001 10750000 S CCXLV 12200001 12250000
P CLXXXVI 9250001 9300000 P CCXVI 10750001 10800000 P CCXLVI 12250001 12300000
E CLXXXV11 9300001 9350000 E CCXVII 10800001 10850000 E CCXLVII 12300001 12350000
T CLXXXVIII 9350001 9400000 T CCXVIII 10850001 10900000 T CCXLVIII 12350001 12400000
O CLXXXV1X 9400001 9450000 O CCXIX 10900001 10950000 O CCXLIX 12400001 12450000
A CXC 9450001 9500000 A CCXX 10950001 11000000 A CCL 12450001 12500000
L CXCI 9500001 9550000 L CCXXI 11000001 11050000 L CCLI 12500001 12550000
D CXCII 9550001 9600000 D CCXXII 11050001 11100000 D CCLII 12550001 12600000
E CXCIII 9600001 9650000 E CCXXIII 11100001 11150000 E CCLIII 12600001 12650000
R CXCIV 9650001 9700000 R CCXXIV 11150001 11200000 R CCLIV 12650001 12700000
E CXCV 9700001 9750000 E CCXXV 11200001 11250000 E CCLV 12700001 12750000
C CXCVI 9750001 9800000 C CCXXVI 11250001 11300000 C CCLVI 12750001 12800000
H CXCVII 9800001 9850000 H CCXXVII 11300001 11350000 H CCLVII 12800001 12850000
O CXCVIII 9850001 9900000 O CCXXVIII 11350001 11400000 O CCLVIII 12850001 12900000
A CXCIX 9900001 9950000 A CCXXIX 11400001 11450000 A CCLIX 12900001 12950000
J CC 9950001 10000000 J CCXXX 11450001 11500000 J CCLX 12950001 13000000
E CCI 10000001 10050000 E CCXXXI 11500001 11550000 E CCLXI 13000001 13050000
N CCII 10050001 10100000 N CCXXXII 11550001 11600000 N CCLXII 13050001 13100000
O CCIII 10100001 10150000 O CCXXXIII 11600001 11650000 O CCLXIII 13100001 13150000
E CCIV 10150001 10200000 E CCXXXIV 11650001 11700000 E CCLXIV 13150001 13200000
S CCV 10200001 10250000 S CCXXXV 11700001 11700000 S CCLXV 13200001 13250000
L CCVI 10250001 10300000 L CCXXXVI 11750001 11800000 L CCLXVI 13250001 13300000
A CCVII 10300001 10350000 A CCXXXVII 11800001 11850000 A CCLXVII 13300001 13350000
P CCVIII 10350001 10400000 P CCXXXVIII 11850001 11900000 P CCLXVIII 13350001 13400000
A CCIX 10400001 10450000 A CCXXXIX 11900001 11950000 A CCLXIX 13400001 13450000
Z CCX 10450001 10500000 Z CCXL 11950001 12000000 Z CCLXX 13450001 13500000

 

Code from to
E CCLXXI 13500001 13550000
L CCLXXII 13550001 13600000
R CCLXXIII 13600001 13650000
E CCLXXIV 13650001 13700000
S CCLXXV 13700001 13750000
P CCLXXVI 13750001 13800000
E CCLXXVII 13800001 13850000
T CCLXXVIII 13850001 13900000
O CCLXXIX 13900001 13950000
A CCLXXX 13950001 14000000
L CCLXXXI 14000001 14050000
D CCLXXXII 14050001 14100000
E CCLXXXIII 14100001 14150000
R CCLXXXIV 14150001 14200000
E CCLXXXV 14200001 14250000
C CCLXXXVI 14250001 14300000
H CCLXXXVII 14300001 14350000
O CCLXXXVIII 14350001 14400000
A CCLXXXIX 14400001 14450000
J CCXC 14450001 14500000
E CCXCI 14500001 14550000
N CCXCII 14550001 14600000
O CCXCIII 14610001 14650000
E CCXCIV 14650001 14700000
S CCXCV 14700001 14750000
L CCXCVI 14750001 14800000
A CCXCVII 14800001 14850000
P CCXCVIII 14850001 14900000
A CCXCIX 14900001 14950000
Z CCC 14950001 15000000

Third sequence

Code from to
Code from to
Code from to
E I 1500001 1550000
E XXXI 3000001 3050000 E LXI 4500001 4550000
L II 1550001 1600000
L XXXII 3050001 3100000 L LXII 4550001 4600000
R III 1600001 1650000
R XXXIII 3100001 3150000 R LXIII 4600001 4650000
E IV 1650001 1700000
E XXXIV 3150001 3200000 E LXIV 4650001 4700000
S V 1700001 1750000
S XXXV 3200001 3250000 S LXV 4700001 4750000
P VI 1750001 1800000
P XXXVI 3250001 3300000 P LXVI 4750001 4800000
E VII 1800001 1850000
E XXXVII 3300001 3350000 E LXVII 4800001 4850000
T VIII 1850001 1900000
T XXXVIII 3350001 3400000 T LXVIII 4850001 4900000
O IX 1900001 1950000
O XXXIX 3400001 3450000 O LXIX 4900001 4950000
A X 1950001 2000000
A XL 3450001 3500000 A LXX 4950001 5000000
L XI 2000001 2050000
L XLI 3500001 3550000 L LXXI 5000001 5050000
D XII 2050001 2100000
D XLII 3550001 3600000 D LXXII 5050001 5100000
E XIII 2100001 2150000
E XLIII 3600001 3650000 E LXXIII 5100001 5150000
R XIV 2150001 2200000
R XLIV 3650001 3700000 R LXXIV 5150001 5200000
E XV 2200001 2250000
E XLV 3700001 3750000 E LXXV 5200001 5250000
C XVI 2250001 2300000
C XLVI 3750001 3800000 C LXXVI 5250001 5300000
H XVII 2300001 2350000
H XLVII 3800001 3850000 H LXXVII 5300001 5350000
O XVIII 2350001 2400000
O XLVIII 3850001 3900000 O LXXVIII 5350001 5400000
A XIX 2400001 2450000
A XLIX 3900001 3950000 A LXXIX 5400001 5450000
J XX 2450001 2500000
J L 3950001 4000000 J LXXX 5450001 5500000
E XXI 2500001 2550000
E LI 4000001 4050000 E LXXXI 5500001 5550000
N XXII 2550001 2600000
N LII 4050001 4100000 N LXXXII 5550001 5600000
O XXIII 2600001 2650000
O LIII 4100001 4150000 O LXXXIII 5600001 5650000
E XXIV 2650001 2700000
E LIV 4150001 4200000 E LXXXIV 5650001 5700000
S XXV 2700001 2750000
S LV 4200001 4250000 S LXXXV 5700001 5750000
L XXVI 2750001 2800000
L LVI 4250001 4300000 L LXXXVI 5750001 5800000
A XXVII 2800001 2850000
A LVII 4300001 4350000 A LXXXVII 5800001 5850000
P XXVIII 2850001 2900000
P LVIII 4350001 4400000 P LXXXVIII 5850001 5900000
A XXIX 2900001 2950000
A LIX 4400001 4450000 A LXXXIX 5900001 5950000
Z XXX 2950001 3000000
Z LX 4450001 4500000 Z XC 5950001 6000000

 

Code from to
Code from to
Code from to
E XCI 6000001 6050000 E CXXI 7500001 7550000 E CLI 9000001 9050000
L XCII 6050001 6100000 L CXXII 7550001 7600000 L CLII 9050001 9100000
R XCIII 6100001 6150000 R CXXIII 7600001 7650000 R CLIII 9100001 9150000
E XCIV 6150001 6200000 E CXXIV 7650001 7700000 E CLIV 9150001 9200000
S XCV 6200001 6250000 S CXXV 7700001 7750000 S CLV 9200001 9250000
P XCVI 6250001 6300000 P CXXVI 7750001 7800000 P CLVI 9250001 9300000
E XCVII 6300001 6350000 E CXXVII 7800001 7850000 E CLVII 9300001 9350000
T XCVIII 6350001 6400000 T CXXVIII 7850001 7900000 T CLVIII 9350001 9400000
O XCIX 6400001 6450000 O CXXIX 7900001 7950000 O CLIX 9400001 9450000
A C 6450001 6500000 A CXXX 7950001 8000000 A CLX 9450001 9500000
L CI 6500001 6550000 L CXXXI 8000001 8050000 L CLXI 9500001 9550000
D CII 6550001 6600000 D CXXXII 8050001 8100000 D CLXII 9550001 9600000
E C111 6600001 6650000 E CXXXIII 8100001 8150000 E CLXIII 9600001 9650000
R CIV 6650001 6700000 R CXXXIV 8150001 8200000 R CLXIV 9650001 9700000
E CV 6700001 6750000 E CXXXV 8200001 8250000 E CLXV 9700001 9750000
C CVI 6750001 6800000 C CXXXVI 8250001 8300000 C CLXVI 9750001 9800000
H CVII 6800001 6850000 H CXXXVII 8300001 8350000 H CLXVII 9800001 9850000
O CVIII 6850001 6900000 O CXXXVIII 8350001 8400000 O CLXVIII 9850001 9900000
A CIX 6900001 6950000 A CXXXIX 8400001 8450000 A CLXIX 9900001 9950000
J CX 6950001 7000000 J CXL 8450001 8500000 J CLXX 9950001 10000000
E CXI 7000001 7050000 E CXLI 8500001 8550000
N CXII 7050001 7100000 N CXLII 8550001 8600000
O CXIII 7100001 7150000 O CXLIII 8600001 8650000
E CXIV 7150001 7200000 E CXLIV 8650001 8700000
S CXV 7200001 7250000 S CXLV 8700001 8750000
L CXVI 7250001 7300000 L CXLVI 8750001 8800000
A CXVII 7300001 7350000 A CXLVII 8800001 8850000
P CXVIII 7350001 7400000 P CXLVIII 8850001 8900000
A CXIX 7400001 7450000 A CXLIX 8900001 8950000
Z CXX 7450001 7500000 Z CL 8950001 9000000
E
L
R
E
S
P
E
T
O
A
L
D
E
R
E
C
H
O
A
J
E
N
O
E
S
L
A
P
A
Z

Note that to date no note has been recorded from the sequence E I 1500001 to E XXXVIV 3200000 and something might have gone amiss with these notes.

Anomalies

Certain numbering anomalies have been recorded. These could be caused by a variety of factors.

When Villa’s officials took over in Ciudad Juárez, they seized $1,000,000. This money had not been numbered and Villa’s officials began the work of stamping it, though the Carranza agents made away with the secret numerical code Albuquerque Journal, 6 July 1914.

One set of notes have the control C I. Known examples include 609232, 615513, 701243, 808853 and 1008258.

Certain instances could be attributed to the change in lettering not being made in strict conformance with the 50,000. For example:

expected actual shift
2105219 E XLIII R XL1V +1
2148591
2431145
A XL1X J L +1
13628486 R CCLXXIII E CCLXXIV +1
13748301 S CCLXXV
P CCLXXVI +1

or

 


expected actual shift
2294135 H XLVII C XLVI -1
2310091
O XLVIII H XLVII -1
14054731 D CCLXXXII L CCLXXXI -1

or

 


expected actual shift
1716738 S XXXV R XXXIII -2
1718405
14927337
A CCXCIX A CCXCVII -2

Others can be attributed to typographical errors.

expected actual shift
475266 P XCVI
P XCIV -2


H XLVII -1
2492966
J L
3359609
T LXVII T LXVIII -1
4765962 P XC1V P XCVI -2
5013347 L C1 E CI
9762467 C CLXVI R CLXVI
9786155

Finally

expected actual shift
7300661 A CXLVII E CXI -46
7378359 P CXLVIII N CXII -46
7391719